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Thread: A to Z of Food Nutrition Facts

  1. #1
    Hello PPL! In this thread you will find ALL food nutrition facts I can't write down all in one day... but I will be updated everyday

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    Almonds, which are often referred to as "the gourmet nut", are among the most nutrient dense tree nuts. In botany, almonds are typically classified as a fruit and form part of the stone fruit family. Other fruits in this family include peaches, plums, nectarines, apricots as well as cherries.

    It is a known fact that almond extracts are often made from apricot stones, as the two have very similar flavors.

    There are two forms of the almond plant. One produces sweet almonds and the second produces bitter almonds. The bitter almond is typically shorter and wider than the sweet almond. Extracts from the bitter almonds were once used in medicine, however, even small doses of this extract today, could prove to be deadly.

    Almonds are a good source of protein and are high in antioxidants, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron as well as vitamin E. They also provide a good source of monounsaturated fat ó the good fat that is needed for heart health.

    Studies presented at the 2006 Obesity Societies Annual Scientific Meeting (NAASO) showed evidence that almonds help to satisfy hunger. In fact, eating a handful of almonds a day could play a valuable role in weight management.

    Another study showed early indications that almonds may also play a role in the prevention of colon cancer.

    Almonds rank as the largest U.S. horticultural export and more than 80 countries import their almonds from California. According to the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), the top five almond producers in a calendar year in 2003 were the United States, followed by Spain, Syria, Iran and Italy.


    In Greek mythology, apples were associated with the healing god Apollo, perhaps the source for the modern-day adage that an apple a day keeps the doctor away. In medieval times, physicians were taught that cooked apples could relieve disturbances of the bowels, lungs and nervous system. The custom of serving fresh fruit, particularly apples, at the end of a meal arose because of the favorable effects on digestion attributed to them by the physicians Hippocrates and Galen. Plus apple juice was one of the earliest prescribed antidepressants.

    Apples are not bursting with vitamins and minerals like other fruits, though they do provide a bit of vitamin C and potassium. However, without a doubt apples are amazing for controlling blood sugar, says Dr. Barry Sears in his book The Top 100 Zone Foods. ďApples are a good source of soluble fiber, especially pectin, which helps control insulin levels by slowing the release of sugar into your bloodstream. Pectin also helps reduce cholesterol levels by lowering insulin secretion.Ē

    We now also know that apples fairly shine in antioxidant phytochemicals; the principal ones identified so far are phenolics and the flavonoid quercetin.

    Research suggests that natural antioxidants like these could be even more effective than vitamin supplements. Comell University researchers, for example, have found that the amount of fresh apple extract from a medium apple with skin provides the antioxidant activity equal to 1,500 milligrams of vitamin C. Using colon cancer cells treated with apple extract, the scientists found that cell proliferation was inhibited in vitro. The researchers also tested the apple extract against human liver cancer cells and again found inhibition of the growth of those cells.

    People who eat lots of apples may have lower rates of lung cancer, judging by a study done in Finland. The study, published August 1, 1997, in the American Journal of Epidemiology, was focused on flavonoids. The study reviewed the diet of 9,959 Finns aged five to 99 years. Of those in the group who were cancer-free in 1965, those who ate the most flavonoid-rich foods ó apples and other fruit, onions, juices, vegetables, and jams ó had a 20 percent lower incidence of cancer through 1991. Quercetin, a flavonoid found mostly in apples, accounted for 95 percent of the flavonoids consumed by the study group.

    To get the most benefit, don't peel your apples. Quercetin is found only in the skin.


    The apricot (Prunus armeniaca), a relative of the peach, originated thousands of years ago in China, where they still grow wild in the mountains. Greek mythology experts believe apricots are the "golden apples" of Hesperides ó the fruit Hercules was ordered to pick in the eleventh of his twelve labors.

    This fragile, delicately flavored, velvet-skinned fruit gradually worked its way westward on camel caravans to the Mediterranean, where it flourished. Spanish explorers introduced apricots to California in the 18th century.

    Fresh, dried or canned, apricots are one of the best sources of beta-carotene, with just one fresh apricot providing about the daily recommendation of vitamin A. Canned apricots provide three times more because heat processing breaks down cell walls, releasing additional beta-carotene.

    The beta-carotene is converted to Vitamin A in the body. This nutrient helps protect the eyes and keep the skin, hair, gums and various glands healthy. It also helps build bones and teeth. Plus, research shows that Vitamin A helps to fight infection by maintaining strong immunity. For this reason, researchers are looking to apricots as a valuable source of beta-carotene's healing power.

    Apricots are also a good source of fiber (about 2.5 grams for three apricots) and are bursting with potassium (about 300 milligrams in three fresh or eight dried halves). Apricots also provide Vitamin C.

    Laetrile ó also called amygdalin or vitamin B17, though not an official vitamin ó is a natural substance extracted from apricot pits that's been a popular underground treatment for cancer for decades. Its anticancer effect purportedly comes from the cyanide it contains.


    Asparagus is native to Eurasia and was regarded as a delicacy by the Romans. The most renowned type of asparagus is the Argenteuil asparagus which is cultivated in France. The part used as a vegetable is the young shoot, and if white, blanched asparagus is required, then the earth must be mounded up around the young plant so that the stem is not exposed to the sunlight. The plant is harvested when the tip of the asparagus appears above the mound. French asparagus can be peeled and cooked, and served together with a creamy mayonnaise-type sauce, or it can be used on Pizzas.

    Asparagus root contains compounds called steroidal glycosides, which may help reduce inflammation. In fact, some Chinese herbalists have used it to treat arthritis.

    Asparagus also contains useful amounts of calcium, magnesium and iodine and is an excellent source of folic acid. Moreover, vitamins A, C and E are also well supplied. Just Ĺ cup of cooked asparagus provides about 25% of the RDA for folic acid and more than 80% of the RDA for vitamin C.
    Asparagus needs to be cooked as soon as possible after buying.


    Contrary to what many people think, avocados are a fruit, not a vegetable, and are packed with nutrients you need and may not be getting enough of.

    Avocados are one of the best sources of monounsaturated fat, the fat known to lower artery-clogging LDL cholesterol and raise heart-healthy HDL cholesterol. A few slices of avocado also contain a hefty serving of folate, one of the B vitamins that helps promote healthy cell and tissue development, as well as potassium, which helps maintain the electrical balance important for nerve conduction.

    Other nutrients include vitamin E, lutein and beta-sitosterol. Vitamin E is an antioxidant, which means that it neutralizes free radicals, which can destroy a health cell or induce inflammation. Vitamin E has been shown to have a dramatic effect on a variety of diseases ranging from heart disease to Alzheimerís. Lutein, a carotenoid, is linked with heart, prostate and eye health, while beta-sitosterol is a plant compound that studies show can help maintain healthy cholesterol levels.

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    Itís the bicycle riderís best friend, a potassium pipeline that instantly picks up a sagging pumper.

    Itís a diarrhea suffererís ally, a soothing substance that may stop what you most want stopped and help replace what youíve lost. It helps to replace electrolytes, the very tiny electrical charges needed to power the body and maintain fluid balance.

    Itís a helping hand against high blood pressure that may help keep your numbers low.

    Itís a tropical fruit, a large berry, thatís handy and healthy, providing 452 milligrams of potassium, 33 milligrams of magnesium, and just over 2 grams of fiber. Studies have shown that people with high levels of potassium in their diet have a lower incidence of hypertension, even if they donít watch their salt intake.

    The banana shares many benefits of its fruity brethren: Itís low in calories, fat, sodium, and much of its fiber is soluble ó the kind that can help lower cholesterol. It stands out, however, because it has lots of potassium and a respectable amount of magnesium. Thatís why itís a favorite fruit of most athletes and often is recommended for people with diarrhea or high blood pressure.

    Bananas are also a very good source of vitamin B6, providing one-third of the RDA in a single serving.


    Barley is a common ingredient used in animal feed and is a key ingredient in the production of both beer and whiskey. It has often been thought of as wheat due to their similar nutritional profiles. However, barley contains twice as many fatty acids as wheat, differentiating the two.

    Barley is a member of the grass, or Poaceae family and is primarily a cereal grain. It was once one of the only major staple food sources in Tibet, where it is made into a flour type product called tsampa.

    There are various types of barley available and these include whole barley, hulled barley, pearled barley as well as barley flakes.

    According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, in 2005 the top producers of barley crops in the world were Russia, Canada, Germany, France, Ukraine, Turkey, Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Spain.

    Barley contains copper, phosphorus and zinc. It is also rich in fiber and has been known to lower high blood cholesterol. Barley also contains calcium and iron.

    One hundred grams of cooked, pearled barley would provide the body with 123 calories, 28 grams of carbohydrates, 2 grams of protein and 3 milligrams of sodium. Barley also contains zero fat and zero cholesterol.

    The American Malting Barley Association Inc. provides a basic research foundation into the breeding, biochemistry and production of barley.


    Beef is a common food item and is used to refer to meat that comes from bovines such as domestic cattle, water buffalo and antelopes. The main source of beef is, however, from domestic cattle (cows and bulls).

    Beef can be used for a wide variety of foods and can be cut into steaks, ribs, roasts or may be ground and sold as mince. Beef is graded for quality depending on where on the bovine's body it originates. Firstly, beef is divided into primal cuts and the closer to the middle back, the tenderer that meat would be. Meat that is on the neck and legs generally produces the toughest cuts.

    If you were to divide a bovine's body into regions, you would get chuck, ribs, short loins, sirloin and round steak from the upper half. The lower half would produce cuts such as brisket, shank, plate and flank.

    Looking at the upper half in more detail, chuck would be a rectangular cut steak that is about one inch thick. Ribs, short and long, would be taken from ribs 6-12 of the animal. Short lion, which comes from the back center of the bovine would be used for porterhouse and fillet mignon steaks and is the tenderest cut. Sirloin has more flavor than lion but is less tender and is cut from the lower portion of the ribs. Round steak is cut from the very back of the cow and is a lean cut that has flavor, yet it is somewhat tough. Rump and hind shank also come from this portion of the bovine.

    Looking at the lower half in more detail, brisket falls on the breast portion of the animal and it is a popular cut for corned beef. Shank meat comes from the shank portion of the bovine and is usually very lean. The plate cut is also known as the short plate and comes from the belly of the cow, directly below the rib cut. This type of meat produces a tough, fatty meat that is usually sold quite cheaply in supermarkets and butcheries. Flank is the beefsteak that comes from the belly muscles of the cow and is usually used for stir-fried beef dishes.

    Other beef variety meats include the tongue, which is usually sliced for sandwiches in Western cooking; tripe from the stomach; various glands ó particularly the pancreas and thymus ó referred to as sweetbreads; the heart, the brain, the liver, the kidneys; and the tender testicles of the bull popularly known as "calf fries", "prairie oysters", or "Rocky Mountain oysters." Beef bones are essential for making certain varieties of soup stock.

    Beef has various nutrition values depending on the cut and how it is cooked. A serving of whole, cooked brisket contains 206 calories, 25 grams of protein, zero carbs, and 11 grams of fat. It also contains 79mg cholesterol, 60mg sodium, 6mg zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, selenium, phosphorus, niacin, iron and riboflavin. One serving of braised top, round steak would give you 174 calories, 31 grams of protein, zero carbs, and 5 grams of fat. It would also contain 77mg cholesterol, 38mg sodium, 4mg zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, selenium, phosphorus, niacin, iron and riboflavin.


    When the plant antioxidant story became public a few years ago, one of the first fruits to rise to the top of the ORAC charts was the blackberry (Rubus ursinus).

    A member of the rose family (Rosacea) and Rubus species of brambleberries (also called "caneberries"), the blackberry has become one of Oregon's most important fruit exports. Blackberries have an exotic nature to them perpetuated by the culinary fame of the famous Marionberry, a species of blackberry first bred from two cultivars of the Evergreen blackberry in Oregon's Willamette River Valley, Marion County. Marionberries have exceptional shape, aroma and taste that make them a worldwide favorite of gourmet chefs and specialty food manufacturers, paving the way for common use of brambleberries in today's kitchens.

    Drooping with drupelets of goodness

    As with other Rubus species, blackberries have a unique structure that actually contributes to their nutritional value ó it is an "aggregate fruit" composed of many individual drupelets, each like a small berry with one seed, surrounding a firm core called the receptacle. These individual drupelets contribute extra skin, seeds and pectin with dietary fiber value to the nutritional content of blackberries, making it among the highest fiber content plants known.

    Where do blackberries grow and what characteristics do the berries have?

    Blackberries grow wild and are cultivated in temperate zones from the mid-south US to near-Arctic latitudes of northern Canada and are cultivated mainly in northern US states, particularly Oregon and Washington State, and southern British Columbia. Blackberries are commercially grown on every temperate continent, including Africa and Asia.

    Marionberries are the most widely cultivated blackberry specie in the world, especially favored as a popular fruit crop in many countries of Europe. Russia, Germany and Poland are major producers of blackberries. The state of Oregon harvests some 33 million pounds of blackberries each year, whereas the worldwide production is close to 1 billion pounds.

    A tasty and long defensive history

    The genus Rubus contains over 740 species as perennial, deciduous, woody shrubs with long vines ("brambles" up to 20 ft long) covered by firm thorns that made blackberry brambles useful as a defensive barrier along English land borders during the 16th century.

    Rubus also includes roses and diverse other major fruits, including strawberries, apples, pears and peaches. While it may be difficult to see common characteristics among such diverse fruits and the blackberry, there is one important botanical similarity: the flower. All these Rubus plants typically have 5-7 white/pink petals around a central cluster of yellow stamens.

    What is a "bramble" and is this the same as a "cane"?

    A bramble is any plant belonging to the genus Rubus, of which the most commonly known ó and enjoyed ó are the red or black raspberry and blackberry, each having numerous hybrids. There are also some cross-cultivars between the red raspberry and blackberry, such as the boysenberry and loganberry.

    Saying "bramble" is just a simple way to say "raspberries, blackberries, and related berry plants with thorny vines". Mainly in Oregon, these fruits are also called "caneberries" because they grow on woody bramble stems called canes.
    What is it about blackberries that consumers most like?

    Known as the "cabernet" of berries for their earthy, wine-like taste, blackberries are an easy and healthy addition to anyone's diet. This fruit has multiple macronutrients ó high dietary fiber (up to 20% by weight), carbohydrates, heart-healthy polyunsaturated fats (especially in its numerous chewable seeds), low overall fat content (<1%) and protein combined with high micronutrient levels of vitamins, antioxidants and minerals. Blackberries are a particularly good source of vitamin A, potassium and calcium.

    Rich in antioxidant vitamins A and C

    Possibly the most promising benefit from consuming blackberries is their substantial quantity of phenolic acids which are antioxidant compounds known as potent anti-carcinogenic agents, as well as having numerous other potential health benefits.

    Phenolics in blackberries include anthocyanins, ellagic acid, rutin, gallic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid, plus excellent contents of the antioxidant vitamins A and C.

    Nutritious blackberries are a great addition to recipes or as a healthy fresh snack by the handful. Blackberries don't have to be fresh to be nutritious, as quick-frozen and canned berries retain most of the fresh fruit qualities.

    Flash freezing, which is used to make IQF (immediately quick frozen) blackberries, helps trap nutrients and plant chemicals soon after harvest and provides for a healthier fruit. Increasingly seen in whole foods stores across the US and Canada, blackberries (especially Marionberries) can be purchased frozen in one pound bags year round.

    What is the antioxidant strength of blackberries and what chemicals account for it?

    Due to their rich contents of the phenolics mentioned above, blackberries have an ORAC value (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of about 5350 per 100 grams, making them near the top of ORAC fruits. Cranberries and wild blueberries have around 9350 ORAC units, black raspberries about 12,000 and apples average 3100.

    History of uses and folklore

    Because blackberries have grown in Europe for thousands of years and were in use by native Americans when the US and Canadian West was opened, historical practices and folklore have survived on both sides of the Atlantic.

    European blackberry juice was used to treat infections of the mouth and eyes until the 16th century. In the Pacific Northwest, the powdered bark of blackberry brambles was used for toothache relief. A tea made from blackberry leaves is said to aid digestion or arrest vomiting according to First Nations tribes in Washington State and British Columbia. Blackberry root concoctions have been used to remedy dysentery.

    Blackberries contain relatively high quantities of ellagic acid, tannins and cyanidin glycosides. These are antioxidant phenolics that have a wide range of potential health benefits under current research.

    What does medical research say about the health properties of blackberries?

    The following anti-disease properties have been isolated in experimental models during studies specifically on blackberries. With their close relatives ó red or black raspberry and boysenberry ó medical research among all the Rubus species likely applies to one another. Accordingly, see this section in other essays on the red raspberry and black raspberry.

    Although there are no clinical studies to date proving these effects below in humans, medical research shows likely benefit of regularly consuming blackberries against:

    * pleurisy and lung inflammation

    * anti-thrombosis (inhibition of blood clotting)

    * several types of cancer

    * endotoxin shock

    * cardiovascular diseases

    * diabetes

    * age-related cognitive decline.

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